**Options mispricing** is a phenomenon that occurs when the market price of an option deviates from its theoretical or fair value as calculated using an option pricing model, such as the **Black-Scholes model or the Black-76 model**. This can happen for a variety of reasons, such as changes in market conditions, errors in the calculation of the option’s theoretical value, or a lack of liquidity in the option’s market.

Traders who seek to profit from options mispricing may use a variety of strategies to identify and capitalize on these discrepancies. Individual traders may use options mispricing models to identify options that are trading at prices that are significantly different from their theoretical values, and then execute trades to profit from those discrepancies. Hedge funds and investment banks may also use options mispricing models to identify opportunities for profit in the options market and may have the resources and expertise to execute more complex trades to capitalize on these opportunities.

## Why does Options Mispricing Occur?

There are several reasons why options mispricing can occur in financial markets. Some of the main causes include:

**Changes in market conditions:** Options prices are affected by a variety of factors, such as the price of the underlying asset, the time remaining until expiration, and the level of implied volatility. If any of these factors change, it can cause the market price of the option to deviate from its theoretical value.

**Errors in calculation:** Option pricing models, such as the Black-Scholes model or the Black-76 model, rely on certain assumptions and inputs in order to calculate the theoretical value of an option. If there are errors in the inputs or assumptions used in the calculation, it can lead to mispricing of the option.

**Lack of liquidity:** Options markets can be less liquid than markets for the underlying assets, particularly for options with long expiration dates or low trading volume. This lack of liquidity can cause the market price of an option to deviate from its theoretical value due to the difficulty in buying or selling the option at a fair price.

**Market inefficiencies:** In some cases, options mispricing can occur due to market inefficiencies, such as information delays or traders acting on incomplete or incorrect information.

## Types of Option Mispricing Strategies

**Mean reversion: **This strategy involves buying underpriced options (options that are trading below their theoretical value) and selling overpriced options (options that are trading above their theoretical value), with the expectation that the options will eventually revert to their fair value.

**Volatility arbitrage:**This strategy involves taking advantage of discrepancies between the implied volatility of an option and the actual volatility of the underlying asset. For example, a trader might buy an option with high implied volatility and sell an option with low implied volatility, with the expectation that the options’ implied volatilities will eventually converge.

**Delta-neutral trading:**Delta-neutral trading strategy involves constructing a portfolio of options and underlying assets that is neutral to changes in the price of the underlying asset. By doing so, the trader is able to profit from discrepancies between the market prices of the options and their theoretical values without being exposed to price movements in the underlying asset.

## How High-Frequency Trading is used to trade Option Mispricing Trading Strategies

**High-frequency trading (HFT)** is a type of trading strategy that involves executing a high volume of trades at very fast speeds, often using automated algorithms. HFT traders aim to profit from small price discrepancies that can occur in the market due to delays in the dissemination of information or other market inefficiencies.

High-frequency trading can be used to trade options mispricing trading strategies by identifying discrepancies between the market prices of options and their theoretical values, and executing trades to profit from those discrepancies. For example, an HFT trader might use automated algorithms to identify options that are trading at prices that are significantly different from their theoretical values, and then execute trades to profit from those discrepancies.

One way that HFT traders might use automated algorithms to identify options mispricing opportunities is by constantly monitoring the prices of options and comparing them to their theoretical values as calculated using an option pricing model. When the market price of an option deviates significantly from its theoretical value, the HFT trader can use this information to execute trades that take advantage of the discrepancy.

Overall, HFT can be used to trade options mispricing strategies by identifying and capitalizing on discrepancies between the market prices of options and their theoretical values. By using automated algorithms and high-speed trading systems, HFT traders can quickly execute trades to profit from these discrepancies.